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Was it the bright season or the dark season; Was it the spring of hope or the winter of despair? Should people use their minds for happiness, or was unhappiness in mind? Was the world revolving around man or himself? Was man in the dark in the middle of the age; would the time come and the sun would rise upon people who had nothing but their minds, and would they be free to break their chains? Enlightenment! A candle that allows people to see their dark world; or was it a hurt fire? Should man choose either mind or heart; Couldn't man have both mind and heart? Did man have to exist at the ends of this dualism? What was this enlightenment, where lives were devoted for the sake of their ideals, they were faced with oppression, and were burned to life? Wasn't man there to dare to use his mind and exist? Request! Enlightenment was a window that opened as a person to breathe in his little world. And man could only reach this window opened for him when he dared to break the chains of obedience.
The emergence of the Enlightenment Movement, which is especially important for the world history in general and Europe in general, is not an enlightenment realized with a candle that is suddenly lit in a dark environment. It is the main thesis of this study that the exponential values that have come out since the 19th century have occurred at the end of a process and that the experiences are interconnected like the rings of a chain. With the medieval center value judgments becoming the center value of the new values created with the Rise of Science, enlightenment has begun to occur in man and his world. The reason for the need for this study is that the Enlightenment Movement is considered as a cause and effect and the claim that it still continues is not correct. The aim of this study is to determine the changing center value judgments and how the movement takes place in this process. This movement was conveyed through the "Coexistence in Social Movements Perspective" created during the study, the medieval philosophy in Europe, the infrastructure of the Enlightenment Movement and its emergence.
People have a systematic of value that they adopt, whether or not they are aware of their relationship with man and nature, or with God. This conscious or unconscious preferred systematic of value is called ethics or ethics. The purpose of this philosophical examination is not to make or direct any judiciary. It is to try to draw the boundaries of the existing by discussing conceptually and revealing them as a whole; One of the major functions of philosophy is to try to draw or draw the boundaries of existing concepts. Therefore, we will try to examine what ethics and ethics are and what they are not. The question why these concepts are important may come to mind. Its importance stems from the fact that they are the systems that guide the lives of all people, and many philosophers also link these systems to the establishment of institutions. The majority are unaware of how important these concepts are because they experience this orientation unconsciously. Among the daily habits, though not entirely meaningful, it may only be used. What is important here is that these concepts are in the hands of the ways in which they are formed and that people who consciously or unconsciously implement them can change the system...
With the scientific, intellectual developments that took place during the period called the Dark Medieval of Europe, the European society, which tried to get rid of the scholastic thought of the church and the feudal system, experienced many reforms in political and intellectual terms. During the exploitation of the riches of the newly found continents, the Renaissance, the Reform, the Age of Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, the French Revolution, and other revolutions, the transition from the feudal / closed economy to the market economy and then to the commercial and industrial capitalism economy. The capitalist structure, which reached its peak in the 19th century and later, began to actively use imperialism as a result of the search for resources and markets. Socialism and its radical dimension of communism, which reacted to internal and external colonialism, the oppression of the working class in the capitalist system, initially defended the rights of factory workers, but in the years that followed, they carried out their case against the capitalist system. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who systematized socialism into a political movement, existed before, but it is not possible to talk about its effectiveness; The activities performed before were small and local and were evaluated as utopia. Although socialism was known as an anti-individualism until 1848, it has emerged as a new social order that includes the economic and social life of human rights. In our article we describe the process of capitalism from the emergence of the 20th century; We mainly deal with intellectual infrastructure, models and reactions against it.
In order to better understand the pride of Prince Mustafa, it is necessary to know how the succession system in the Ottoman Empire works and the historical process of the sister-murder incident. Therefore, we will firstly touch the succession system from the understanding of the Old Turks to the Ottoman Empire. Afterwards, we will try to deal with the process of Prince Mustafa until the massacre and what happened after that with different dimensions.
The concept of religion in the Western and Islamic literature and the concept of religion according to the Holy Quran.